Sunday, 15 October 2017

SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography)

SPECT, or less commonly, SPET [3], is a medical imaging technique that is based on conventional nuclear medicine imaging, using gamma rays, and tomographic reconstruction methods. It is «performed by using a gamma camera to acquire multiple two-dimensional (2D) images from multiple angles» [4]. «The images reflect functional information about patients similar to that obtained with positron emission tomography (PET). Both SPECT and PET (...) give information based on the spatial concentration of injected radiopharmaceuticals» [1]. It «is a type of nuclear imaging test that shows how blood flows to tissues and organs» [2]. It is very similar to conventional nuclear medicine planar imaging using a gamma camera (that is, scintigraphy), but, it is able to provide true three-dimensional (3D) information [3]. A computer is used to apply a tomographic reconstruction algorithm to the multiple 2D projections, yielding a 3D dataset. «This dataset may then be manipulated to show thin slices along any chosen axis of the body» [4]. SPECT can be used to complement any gamma imaging study, where a true 3D representation can be helpful, (e.g., tumor imaging, infection (leukocyte) imaging, thyroid imaging or bone scintigraphy). Because SPECT permits accurate localization in 3D space, it can be used to provide information about the localized function in internal organs, such as functional cardiac or brain imaging [3].
Bibliographic references:
[1] National Research Council (US) and Institute of Medicine (US) Committee on the Mathematics and Physics of Emerging Dynamic Biomedical Imaging. Mathematics and Physics of Emerging Biomedical Imaging. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1996. Chapter 5, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK232492/. Accessed October 15, 2017.
[2] SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) scan. Mayfield Brain & Spine. 2016. Available at: https://www.mayfieldclinic.com/PE-SPECT.htm. Accessed October 15, 2017.
[3] Single-photon emission computed tomography. Enwikipediaorg. 2017. Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Single-photon_emission_computed_tomography. Accessed October 15, 2017.
[4] Hricak H, Akin O, Vargas HA. (2013). C. In: L. Brady and T. Yaeger, ed., Encyclopedia of Radiation Oncology, 1st ed. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp.790.